How was the universe in the eyes of ancient scientists?

Science and Engineering Desk: 17 February 1600. The darkest day in the history of science. Campe di Fiori Square in Rome, the capital of Italy. Everyone came to see the joke.

Big cruel joke. A blatant heretic will be burned to death. This bastard was a priest before. Beyadab is tied to the pole.

Then the ceremony. The executioner received orders from the Pope of the Vatican. Put the fire of the torch on the body of the living youth. Unspeakable torture, even the blazing fire could not shake him.

Even on the eve of being burned to ashes, he was steadfast in his statement. He is the first martyr of science – Giordano Bruno.
What did Bruno say that caused him to be the eyes of the Pope, the clergy, turned into burning coals and floated down the Tiber River?

He said, the earth revolves around the sun. He was not the first to say this, Copernicus, another astronomer of his generation, said the same thing. About a thousand years ago, said the Greek philosopher Aristarchus.

This is very true. Why did Bruno have to die?

This extreme truth was once considered wrong by the Pope, in the Vatican, in Italy, and by the hypocrite clergy sitting in the seat of stupidity all over the world. However, two more famous Greek philosophers Aristotle and Ptolemy cannot avoid the responsibility for this. Aristotle said the earth is the center of the universe. And all the planets and stars in the sky, including the moon and the sun, revolved around the earth. Aristotle is a distinguished man. The whole country respects him. Even the king. So this misconception of his is rooted. But Aristotle made some important points about the universe. The Greeks thought the earth was like a flat plate. Not only in Greece, people all over the world knew that the earth was flat. Aristotle broke this tradition. In his book On the Heavens, he wrote, the earth is not like a flat plate. It is a sphere. But why do people accept it? Aristotle made a strong argument in his book. Readers of that book had no choice but to accept.

2. Why is the lunar eclipse? Aristotle said that a lunar eclipse occurs when the earth falls between the sun and the moon. The shadow cast by the Earth on the Moon during a lunar eclipse is always circular. Never elongated, nor elliptical. If the earth were like a dish, the shadow would be elliptical, not round. But we see round. Aristotle said that because the shape of the earth is like a sphere, the moon casts a spherical shadow during lunar eclipse.

Another strong argument was made by Aristotle in that book. Dhruvatara was in favor of that argument. The fixed stars are always in the same place in the sky. The solstice is just above the North Pole. So if an observer looks from the North Pole, he will always see the constellations overhead. But if one looks from the equator, he will see the fixed stars located exactly on the horizon. In that era, merchants and traders used to travel from one country to another. They fixed the direction by looking at the stars. It was known from them where the position of Dhruvatara is in any country. The Greeks knew that this star could be seen far up in the sky if seen in northern countries. But from the south it is visible in the lower sky. The spherical shape of the earth can also be confirmed from this variation in the position of the pole star.

Aristotle did not stop here. He tried to deduce the circumference of the earth from this manipulation of the position of the pole star from different countries. There were no meters, yards or miles like today. He estimated the circumference of the earth to be four hundred thousand stadia. The size of the stadia in modern terms is not certain. But many scholars think that one stadia is equal to 200 yards. If this is the case, then the value of the circumference of the earth, according to Aristotle, was twice that.

Greek scholars had other arguments for the roundness of the earth. You have to go to the sea shore to check it. Look at the sea of Gabir. You may be waiting for a ship. That ship from a distant land will come to your shores. At certain times you even saw the ship. But on the horizon line in the ocean you will not see the mast of the ship first, you will see the mast of the ship. Then, as you move forward, the Jajaz structure will slowly come into your view over the horizon. If the earth were flat, then the whole body of the ship would be seen at once, not the mast first.

Establishing the idea that the earth is a sphere was Aristotle’s greatest achievement. But darkness lives under the lamp. Such was the case with Aristotle. He was wrong to understand the size of the earth, the size of the universe. That mistake became tomorrow for science. He said that the sun and all the planets-stars-satellites revolve around the earth. The reason for this seems to be some wrong belief of his. He loved circles, so loved spheres. The circle seemed to him the most perfect shape. So rotation in a circular path also became his favorite subject. He made a mistake while trying to do it, thinking that the earth is the center of the universe and firmly believing in it.

There were no people to protest his words at that time. There were few people in Greece who practiced knowledge like him. That’s not to say it wasn’t there at all. Aristarchus, another Greek philosopher, said the opposite. He said, the earth is not the center of the universe. But the Greek society did not take his words into account. Aristarchus’s theory did not hold up to the brilliance of Aristotle. So it is cancelled.

3. In the first century AD, Ptolemy promoted Aristotle’s theory more vigorously. He created a miniature model of the universe.

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